Frequently asked questions about Environment and Social Safeguards management

Safeguarding refers to measures to protect, shield, defend, keep secure the health, wellbeing and human rights of individuals and communities to avoid undue harm to people and the environment.

It seeks to Identify environment and social risks at the earliest stage of project planning, with the objective of avoiding the environment and social risks, if avoidance is not possible, reduce and minimize potential adverse impacts, if reduction or minimization is not sufficient, mitigate and/or restore; and compensate for the environment and social impacts and offset as a last resort.

Sustainable development means development that meets the needs of this generation without compromising the rights of future generations. Present use of resources must not compromise the right to use the same resource by future generations.

Biological diversity means the variability among living organisms from all sources, including, inter alia, terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.

Frequently asked questions about Environment and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA)

Environment means the physical factors of the surroundings of human beings, including land, water, atmosphere, climate, sound, odour, taste, the biological factors of animals and plants and the social factor of aesthetics and includes both the natural and the built environment.

ESIA means a systematic examination conducted to determine whether or not a project will have any adverse impact on the environment, (NEA 2020). It is also defined by World Bank, 2018 as an instrument used to identify and assess the potential environmental and social impacts of a proposed project, evaluate alternatives, and design appropriate mitigation, management, and monitoring measures

ESMP is an instrument that details measures to be taken during the implementation and operation of a project to eliminate or offset adverse Environment and Social impacts, or to reduce them to acceptable levels and actions needed to implement these measures.

A project brief is a summary statement of the likely environmental and social effects of a proposed development that is not subject to a full ESIA.

A developer is a person who is developing a project which is subject to an environmental impact assessment process.

Environment monitoring is the continuous determination of actual and potential effects of any activity or phenomenon on the environment, whether short term or long term.

It is the systematic, documented, periodic and objective evaluation of how well environmental organization, management and equipment are performing in conserving the environment and its resources (NEA 2019).

Public consultation is the process of identifying and engaging key stakeholders’ groups such as citizens, NGOs, agencies, authorities and interest groups to provide their input into the planned development and especially on those impacts that directly or indirectly affect people’s livelihoods.

In Uganda, a lead agency refers to any Ministry, department, parastatal agency, local government system or public officer in which or in whom any law vests functions of control or management of any segment of the environment.

Frequently asked questions about Management of Land Acquisition and Involuntary Resettlement

Land acquisition refers to all methods of obtaining land for project purposes, which may include outright purchase and acquisition of access rights, such as easements or rights of way

Resettlement is involuntary when it occurs without the informed consent of the displaced persons or if they give their consent without having the power to refuse resettlement, IFC 2002.

RAP is the document in which a project sponsor or other responsible entity specifies the procedures that it will follow and the actions that it will take to mitigate adverse effects, compensate losses, and provide development benefits to persons and communities affected by an investment project.

Any person who, as a result of the implementation of a project, loses the right to own, use, or otherwise benefit from a built structure, land (residential, agricultural, or pasture), annual or perennial crops and trees, or any other fixed or moveable asset, either in full or in part, permanently or temporarily.

GRM refers to institutions, instruments, methods and process by which a resolution to a grievance is sought and provided. These should be affordable and accessible to all PAPs.

A concern or complaint raised by an individual or a group within communities affected by project activities. Both concerns and complaints can result from either real or perceived impacts of the project and may be filed in the same manner and handled with the same procedure.

Compensation refers to payment in cash or in kind for an asset or a resource that is acquired or affected by a project at the time the asset needs to be replaced. Compensation for assets should be done at full replacement cost including the necessary transaction costs associated with the asset replacement i.e. administrative charges, registration or title fees, reasonable moving expenses, and any similar costs imposed on affected persons.

Economic displacement refers to loss of income streams or means of livelihood resulting from land acquisition or obstructed access to resources (land, water, or forest) resulting from the construction or operation of a project or its associated facilities.

Livelihood refers to the full range of means that individuals, families and communities utilize to make a living. Wage-based income, agriculture, fishing, foraging, other natural resource-based livelihoods, petty trade and bartering

Frequently asked questions about Occupational Safety and Health

It is the multidisciplinary approach to the: recognition, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, control of disease, injuries, and adverse health condition resulting from exposure to hazardous environment in the workplace

Occupational hygiene means the anticipation, recognition, evaluation, monitoring and control of conditions arising in or from the workplace, which may cause illness or adverse health effects to persons.

The person or persons in actual occupation of a workplace, whether as the owner or not and includes an employer.

Risk means the probability of occurrence of an adverse effect from a substance on people or the environment combined with the magnitude of the consequence of that adverse effect.

A workplace includes, any land, premises, location, vessel or thing, at, in, upon, or near which, a worker is, in the course of employment.

A wholly or partially enclosed space not designed or intended for human occupancy and in which a hazardous atmosphere could develop as a result of the contents, location or construction of the confined space

First aid is help given to a sick or injured person until full medical treatment is available.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is specialized wear, gear or equipment used to provide additional protection to workers co-workers, and occasional visitors exposed to workplace hazards.

Frequently asked questions about Gender Mainstreaming

Gender refers to the social, behavioral and cultural attributes, and norms associated with being male or female

It is a process that systematically integrates gender perspectives into legislation, public policy, programs and projects. The process enables making women and men’s concerns and experience to be made an integral dimension of the design, implementation, and evaluation with the goal of achieving gender equity.

Any harmful act that is perpetrated against a person’s will and that is based on socially ascribed differences between males and females. GBV introduces acts that inflict mental, physical or sexual harm or suffering; threats of such acts and coercion and other deprivations of liberty whether in private or public life.

Gender-Based Violence (GBV) or violence against women and girls (VAWG), is a global pandemic affecting 1 in 3 women in their lifetime. 35% of women worldwide have experienced either physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence. Globally, 7% of women have been sexually assaulted by someone other than a partner and 200m women have experienced female genital mutilation.

These are solutions that achieve the overall objective of an intervention while closing relevant gender gaps in the process.

Frequently asked questions about Climate Change

Climate refers to the average weather conditions of a place observed over many years.

Climate change refers to shifts in climate patterns that can be attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alter the composition of the global atmosphere, and which are in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC], 2001). Climate change involves significant changes over several decades or longer, in temperature, precipitation, wind patterns, and other aspects of climate. Climate change involves longer term trends such as gradual shifts towards warmer, wetter, or drier conditions.

Global warming is one of the aspects of climate change. It’s a term used to describe the recent rise in the global temperature near the earth’s surface which is caused mostly by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Global warming is just one way in which the climate is affected by rising concentrations of greenhouse gases e.g. carbon dioxide and methane.

Substantial evidence by scientists has been documented to confirm that our climate is changing. For example, scientists have documented long-term changes in temperature, precipitation, sea level and heat stored in the oceans has been observed around the world.  Reductions in sea ice, land-based ice, and snow cover are evident and already having profound impacts in the Arctic and beyond (EPA, 2017). Rising sea levels, caused mainly by the expansion of seawater as it warms, along with billions of tons of water added to the ocean each year from melting glaciers ice caps, and ice sheets, are affecting coastal communities in many parts of the world.

Adaptation to climate change refers to adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities (IPCC, 2001). It means taking action to prepare for and adjust to both the current effects of climate change and the predicted impacts in the future. This calls for change in processes, practice and structures to moderate potential damage or to benefit from opportunities associated with climate change (UNFCCC, 2021). Countries and communities need to develop adaptation solutions and implement actions to respond to the impacts of climate change that are already happening as well as prepare for future impacts (UNFCCC, 2021).

Climate change mitigation involves actions that reduce the flow of heat trapping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere either by reducing the sources of these gases (reducing the burning of fossil fuels for electricity, heat or transport and adopting cleaner energy sources) or enhancing the sinks that accommodate and store these gases (forest and ocean conservation coupled with afforestation efforts). Climate change mitigation is about reducing and stabilizing the level of heat trapping greenhouse gases.

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